Quick Win Projects in Rajkot
Rajkot is an industrial hub of Saurashtra region. Traffic congestion and industrial pollution lead to poor air quality in Rajkot city. Shorter trips and intermittent frequency of available public transportation leads to increase in number of private vehicles. Inadequate last mile connectivity also restricts the usage of public transport. Auto-rickshaws, which are the preferred mode of public transportation due to frequent availability, apart from being illegal, add to traffic congestion problems. Trikon Baug, Hospital Chowk, and Greenland Chowk are some areas facing severe traffic congestion issues.
Better transport and traffic planning will have a significant impact on improving air quality. The CapaCITIES project is supporting Rajkot in improving ridership along the Bus Rapid Transit route by studying the need for last mile connectivity and proposing relevant measures. Feasibility for electrification of the BRT route is also being assessed.
The project is also supporting the city by providing sensor based air quality monitoring stations, which will measure reductions in particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) as a result of potential improvements in ridership and public transport. While the city has already deployed 20 environmental sensors at different locations in the city to monitor temperature, humidity, CO2, O2, CO, SO2, Light, UV, Noise and NOx, these sensors do not have the ability to monitor PM 2.5 and PM 10, which are reference pollutants for assessing transport emission impacts on air quality.
The two-sensor based particulate matter monitors are installed at Trikon Baug and RMC East Zone Office. Real time concentrations are monitored and the
data is relayed to the RMC Integrated Command and Control Center. The Air Quality Index is also calculated and displayed. Real time results are also visible on the Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC) website (http://184.108.40.206:8090/public/stations/1).
2. Solar PV in Social Housing
The two-sensor based particulate matter monitors are installed at Trikon Baug and RMC East Zone OffiThe Krantiveer Khudiram Bose social housing complex (called 11A) consists of 5 buildings with a total of 140 dwelling units. At full occupancy, common amenities i.e. lifts, lights and pumps, will consume 3000 units of electricity per month. To encourage the adoption of solar PV in social housing, a 30 kWp grid connected solar PV system is installed, as a first step.
The social housing complex has an association which will be responsible for ensuring the safe operation
of the system. The solar PV system will generate
3600 units of electricity per month (43,200 kWh per year), which has a potential to reduce 35 tCO2e GHG emissions per year. The system will consist of 100 poly-crystalline PV panels of 315Wp capacity each, which are mounted on a frame at a 21 degree panel tilt.
The solar PV system will be operated and maintained by the implementation contractor for a period of 10 years from commissioning. Overall responsibility for the safety, security and periodic cleaning of the panels will lie with members of the township.
3. Solar PV at Aji Water Treatment Plant
The Aji water treatment plant consumes, on an average, approximately 100,000 units of electricity (kWh) every month (~ 3300 units per day, ~1.2 million units per year, which is approximately 3% of total electricity consumption in water supply sector). The water treatment plant is connected to a 475kVA (~380kW) high tension line connection. The installation of a 145kWp grid connected Solar PV system, co- funded by RMC, results in the generation of 580 units of electricity per day (211,700 Units electricity per year), which is equivalent to 18 percent of the total power consumption in the plant and has a potential to reduce 174 tons of CO2 equivalent GHG emissions resulting from the avoided use of conventional energy. 462 poly-crystalline Photo Voltaic panels of 315Wp capacity each are installed over the storage tanks at a 21 degree panel tilt.
Plant performance is monitored in real time through an online software. The software displays data on hourly power generation, monthly yield of the plant, GHG emissions avoided, yield to date and monetary saving as a result of the system.
The solar PV system will be operated and maintained by the contractor who set up the plant for a period of 10 years from installation. A bank guarantee has been submitted by the contractor to RMC as a means to ensure continuous operation and maintenance of the system.
4. Groundwater Recharge System
Rajkot lies in an arid zone, with irregular and erratic monsoons and predominantly experiences a hot and dry climate. The city depends on ground and surface water sources to meet water requirements.
Locally available water bodies such as Aji-II and Nyari-II dams are abandoned as drinking water sources due
to their unacceptable levels of pollution, from city waste water flows. Post monsoon, water is sourced from the Aji-I and Nyari-I dams and the surrounding lakes to meet part of the city water needs. Under such conditions, the rapidly expanding city is highly dependent on the distant Narmada canal water supplies. This dependence increases to over 90 percent in the dry months; the city faces severe water scarcity in the non-monsoon months. The off-take point from the Narmada is 700 km away from the city. Water supply accounts for 60% of electricity consumption by municipal facilities, accounting for 57% of resultant GHG emissions.
Ground water availability in general is dwindling in Rajkot due to increased pumping for various purposes, particularly in the western part of the city. As a result, citizens are resorting to deeper borewells, tapping the deeper aquifer, which is not desirable. Ground water quality issues have also been observed in the eastern part of the city. At the same time, many areas of the city get flooded during the rainy season, impacting life in the city.
Ground water recharge systems, in combination with improvements to the storm water drainage systems have the potential to improve ground water availability and drain-off excess rain water, thereby avoiding localized flooding. Improving availability of local water resources would also reduce the need for pumping water over large distances, thereby also resulting in a reduction of GHG emissions from electricity use.